A Black Therapist in America

Speaking Out Against Learned Voicelessness

Ken Hardy

I’ve spent the last four decades of my life working with young people who see themselves as trapped behind a wall-less prison, who live their lives hidden in the shadows of invisibility as far as white society is concerned. They know all too well that their daily experience—whether it’s going to underfunded schools, succumbing to drug use, or being the victims of police brutality and socioeconomic disparities—doesn’t matter unless it interferes with or disrupts the lives of the white mainstream. While deeply rooted in the racial fabric of our country’s history, life behind the wall-less prison remains a mostly untold story.

Black kids know perfectly well how they’re perceived by white society: they’re threatening thugs and future criminals who need to be contained by any means necessary. Isn’t this the prevailing sentiment that undergirds the shooting of countless numbers of unarmed black men by law enforcement on a regular basis? Whether in a car or walking, running toward or away from the police, unarmed or carrying a toy weapon, the narrative is always the same: they were dangerous and we feared for our lives.

Learning about Race

At an early age, I’d learned that it could even be dangerous to use your hands around white people. When my friend Julius and I would go shopping with our parents, we were sternly told, “Now, be sure to keep your hands in your pockets while we’re in the store. Do you understand me?” Even writing this now brings tears to my eyes. Keeping our hands in our pockets was an accommodation that we had to make for white people because our parents were worried that we’d otherwise be presumed criminals—even at age 5. Julius, now a respected physician, recently mentioned that he still finds himself jamming his hands into his pockets when walking through a department store.

This is what black parents refer to when they mention “having the talk” with their children. “The talk” is a toolkit for racial survival designed to remind black children that they’re living in a white world, where they’ll often be prejudged and presumed guilty until proven innocent—and the latter is no easy task. This was what happened to Tamir Rice, the 12-year-old black boy shot to death by police in Cleveland, Ohio, for playing with a toy gun. Black kids don’t have the luxury of playing with toys guns in public spaces.

Becoming a Therapist

My great-grandmother once implored me, “Kenny, please do something with your life. Make a difference in the world, even if it’s a small one. Too many black people have died for us just to have you squander your precious life.” These words helped shape how I practice as a therapist.

My first full-time permanent position as a clinician was in an outpatient mental health facility in Brooklyn, where I served as director of group and family treatment. My clients were largely lower-income and poor African Americans and Latinos. Their referral sheets typically showed presenting problems similar to what we’d expect to find in any behavioral-health treatment center: anxiety and other affective disorders, psychoses, and a myriad of child-centered family dysfunctions, all compounded by trauma. However, in treatment, clients routinely discussed problems that were never taught in my graduate training or treated in the university-based clinics where I’d worked. These problems often centered on social issues that seemed beyond the reach of the psychological solutions that constituted our preferred treatment protocol. Efforts to uncover the roots of depression, rage, or other serious mental-health issues repeatedly focused on the clients’ biology, psychology, and family-of-origin experiences, but almost never on their ecology and the impact of their social environment.

I’d never treated clients of color before accepting this position, but their experiences felt familiar. For the first time as a practicing clinician, I could breathe freely. Gone was the anxiety about greeting clients in the waiting room and the sudden paralysis they’d exhibit when discovering that “their doctor” wasn’t white. I relished being able to practice in a context where my race didn’t seem to matter. I felt that this job was a godsend. It’s what I believed I was called to do.

I soon learned that my starry-eyed dream and the reality didn’t quite match. Early on, I felt a barrier to connecting with my clients that I found hard to name. Eventually, my clients and colleagues began to name it for me. The first was my Latino client, Luis, who one day at an awkward juncture in a session announced, “I don’t really get you, man. You look black, but everything else about you tells me you’re white. I really can’t trust someone like you, who has the complexion but not the connection. Even though technically I’m not black, I feel blacker than you.” In gaining my professional credentials, had I lost my soul as a black person?

Dr. Stevenson, the white chief psychologist and my immediate supervisor, welcomed me with high expectations. He wanted to develop a strong family therapy program and repeatedly emphasized the importance of rooting it in a solid clinical foundation, nothing way out or radical. Whenever I brought up the possibility of addressing issues of race in therapy, he either saw it as a distraction from the real clinical issues that needed to be considered or intimated that I was allowing my personal views to obscure good therapeutic judgment.

It all came to a head one day when he pulled me aside and said, “Dr. Hardy, I’m going to remind you again, since you seem to suffer from some short-term memory, that we’re a psychiatric outpatient clinic, not the NAACP or Amnesty International. I suggest you take time during this forthcoming weekend to decide if this is the place for you. We’re a mental health facility. Do you understand?”

I was stunned and infuriated by his sarcasm and his condescension. After sitting in silence for a few minutes, overcome with emotion that I was trying desperately to ward off, I turned to him and began to angrily lecture him in return. “Who do you think you are?” I spat. “Do you think you can talk to me anyway you want because you’re white? I know you don’t want to acknowledge race, but for me this is racial. I do not wish to be in a relationship with you or anyone else where I’m disrespected, talked down to, and treated as if I’m nonhuman. I’m sick of this!”

As Stevenson listened with a look of cool disdain on his face, he calmly said, “Dr. Hardy you’re quite an interesting character. Once again you’re inappropriately introducing race into our discussion. I’ve had enough of this. Our meeting is over.”

When I returned to work the next Monday, the executive director, Stevenson’s boss, asked me to resign. For months afterward, I was haunted by what had happened.

Between Two Worlds

It took me a little over a year to find another clinical job, but that gave me an opportunity to sort out what had happened. I was too white for the black people I worked with, and too black for people like Stevenson. I’d tried to play the game of belonging and fitting in, but instead I’d become an unwelcomed foreigner without a home.

Slowly, out of my endless self-reflection, came a kind of personal epiphany. I began to see that what was missing from my therapy with clients like Luis was a full embrace of who I was as a black person. I was so worried about fitting in that I was constantly adjusting who I was to fit the situation. I was playing the role of the stoically detached professional, trying to be as impenetrable as possible. I was trying to be what I’d learned a good white clinician should be. Luis knew this and had done me an enormous service by calling me on it. In a strange way, it was my jailbreak moment with Stevenson that allowed the parts of me that had anxiously hidden inside my personal wall-less prison to break out.

I found a nonclinical job at a youth-service program in an impoverished black community with an all-black staff, and it was an entirely different experience. It gave me an opportunity to reconnect every day with other blacks and experience a deeper, fuller sense of home. I felt part of a community where it was okay to give voice to the role of race in our clients’ day-to-day struggles.

Finding a Voice

Today, I spend much of my time working as a consultant on improving racial relationships within large healthcare and social service systems. Increasingly, my work has become centered on issues like the anatomy of racial rage, learned voicelessness, and an array of other invisible wounds of racial oppression. At the same time, I continue to maintain a practice where I see how easy it is to lose perspective on the social issues that shape our clients’ lives. To address the powerful role oppression played in my clients’ lives, I’ve come to see my mission as being not only a therapeutic healer doling out help in doses of one-hour appointment slots, but also an activist and a bridge-builder.


Kenneth Hardy, PhD, is director of the Eikenberg Institute for Relationships and professor of marriage and family therapy at Drexel University.

This blog is excerpted from "The View from Black America" by Kenneth Hardy. The full version is available in the November/December 2015 issue, America's Conversation about Race: What Do Therapists Have to Say?

Photo © Getty Images/Mark Makela

Topic: Cultural, Social & Racial Issues | Field of Psychotherapy

Tags: counselor | psychotherapy | racial issues | therapist | African American | race relations | networker | anger | inner city | Kenneth Hardy

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Monday, June 22, 2020 4:16:45 PM | posted by Gursharan Kahlon
Hello Dr. Hardy. Is there an email address I reach you at? I have been searching for you for a few weeks. Our director from University of Waterloo would like to speak to you about some training no anti-racism and oppression. Thank you. Gursharan Kahlon

Saturday, June 13, 2020 10:13:51 AM | posted by Keith Mackey
Thank you Dr.Hardy for your continued relentless pursuit in having this matter of systemic racism recognize as a mental health disorder. You introduced many of us to this idea in the 1990's with the training you did with staff at the the Youth Study Center here in Philadelphia. It was relevant then and without a doubt it is now! May Allah continue to bless you and your work!

Monday, June 8, 2020 2:44:35 PM | posted by Jennifer Pietrzak
Thank you, Dr. Hardy, for this excellent article. I too had tears in my eyes imagining 5 year olds trying to not look like criminals. I experienced outrage when reading how your supervisor condescended to you, and I'm glad you named names. As a social worker, i was trained to understand the system a person grew and dwelled in, the Person-In-Environment perspective. The suggestion that racial or cultural context was either a distraction or a personal issue is outrageous and narrow-minded. I am glad to read that you're now in good company professionally. I have read your work before and am excited you're a part of our mental health community.

Saturday, June 6, 2020 1:29:56 PM | posted by Laurie Sterling
I really appreciate this article and can easily picture the exchange in being directed to put race in the back seat, as if that lived experience were irrelevant or outside the clinical picture. In making room to express and explore the impact of one's race, we invite a more complete clinical picture and therefore an opportunity for deeper understanding and more targeted plans for treatment with our patients. At this time, in being trained as a social worker, I am grateful for the "person in environment" conceptualization as being a key part of my undergrad and graduate curriculum, which is what drew me into social work. In being deliberate in making room to include the impact of one's race and experience of that in our society we are not only opening to a more complete understanding of our patients, but giving voice to this reality. I see our profession as having great opportunity and responsibility at this time to acknowledge the injustice that has been and continues to be a part of the daily lives of so many of our patients. Thank you for this article that speaks to the elephant in our collective field. Our offices are not separate from the the societies we and our patients navigate, and we must be a part of the solution in validating and helping to CHANGE what is driving so much suffering in our culture.

Sunday, November 17, 2019 10:14:36 AM | posted by Mattie’ Nogaye
Hello Dr.Hardy. Specifically I am seeking a resource that provides training toward certification in the area of Cultural Diversity / Cultural Attunment. I am the Regional Director of Training for a mental Health agency here in Northern California. I believe The California Institute for Behavioral Health Solutions offered the HEMCDT course and certification at one time. My agency is resource poor where internal agency trainers on this topic are concerned. Considering what I’ve stated on this brief introduction thus far are you aware of any resources I can tap into that would meet our / my needs? Thank you.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019 11:05:57 AM | posted by Ms. G.
Hi Ms. Tanner, Just last night, my daughter sent me the following link for locating black male therapists in Los Angeles, CA. I was trying to find one for a friend who is also looking for an African American male therapist for her 22 year old son. Hope the link helps you to find someone! https://www.mytrucircle.com/directory/?location=Los%20Angeles%2C%20CA

Wednesday, June 19, 2019 11:18:16 AM | posted by latisha tanner
Hi I am looking for black therapists in California preferably a man for my son. Do you know of any I have been searching and I cant see find one. I saw your information on the website and thought maybe you could help us.

Thursday, March 28, 2019 4:10:01 AM | posted by Linda Girdner
I read this first in the print version some years back. Now I am looking forward to Dr. Hardy's 2019 Soul Work conference, the theme of which is Overcoming Voicelessness. And this year's keynote speaker is Angela Davis!

Sunday, March 17, 2019 3:53:51 PM | posted by ellen fox
Dear Dr. Hardy, I met you many years ago at an AFTA meetng and have been a fan of your work. In a meeting of my consult group when I attempted to adress a racist practice I too was told, in complete sincerity by our psychiatrist member, that I was DISTRACTING from the clinical issues. I was rendered speechless at his failure to understand how the behavior of the therapist was racist and shaping the therapy. Our discussion continued but went south with no resolution until later some of the group memebers displayed more awareness but I was never acknowledged. At least they learned something. Thanks for your continuing contribution to our field.

Sunday, March 17, 2019 8:05:44 AM | posted by Courtney
This article is exactly the message that so many people don’t understand this day in age. As a white woman, therapist and advocate for making my fellow white coworkers more aware of the issues that my Black friends experience or have experienced , this article explains what I’m always trying to say to them. I hear things such as, “But there’s always opportunities and if they don’t ask questions or try to find answers that’s on them.” My argument is always this- I grew up in an all white country town and still wasn’t given the same information about college in my regular math class as my two best friends who were in pre-cal so if students aren’t made aware of what to ask at least- they (Black/ minority) children don’t know WHAT to ask.

Friday, March 15, 2019 1:43:57 PM | posted by Bernadette Allen
Thank you for sharing your issues, Dr. Hardy. Code switching for black therapists must be discussed. We have to make it safe for us to operate congruently!

Friday, December 30, 2016 7:25:36 AM | posted by I.G.
Dear Mr. Hardy, I read through your profound piece with tears in my eyes. I am a new therapist, recently graduated from a Canadian University. What you speak of - the awareness of marginalization that multiple groups experience, systemic forces and their impact on people's lives - were a mandatory part of our curriculum. In fact, we were told that therapists helped maintain status quo for too long, and therefore part of our therapeutic duty is to help change unjust systems. In my training, advocacy was seen as a core clinical competency. This is not fringe. This is now becoming mainstream, together with emphasis on evidence-based interventions - at least in Canada. I cannot get a licence if my training does not cover cultural influences (e.g., the impact of race, sexual orientation and gender identity, immigration, Indigenous heritage, ability/disability, etc.). And everyone in my cohort - all the students, and all the faculty - were enthusiastically on board with these developments. Yes, the road ahead is still long and difficult, but these types of changes in how our profession is practiced give me hope.

Friday, November 18, 2016 5:01:28 PM | posted by Frederique Roy
I very interesting read. I'm also very interested in "voicelessness" and in helping people find theirs.

Sunday, November 29, 2015 11:19:56 AM | posted by Linda Castor
I have known Dr. Hardy since 2000, when I was a graduate student. He came to speak to all of us and helped us understand the deep wounding African Americans feel in our culture and society. He encouraged us to talk about race with one another. As a white woman, this encouragement was profound and has shaped my own psychotherapy practice today. This article shows that we have NOT progressed in the 21st Century, and ALL of us need to come together in peace and solidarity and finally end current day injustices.