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P004, Attachment, Session 2, Jerome Kagan

 

Welcome to the second session of The Great Attachment Debate. Today’s session with renowned developmental psychologist Jerome Kagan will discuss the scientific evidence that forms the foundation of Attachment Theory, and whether we’re “too attached” to using Attachment Theory as a basis for our clinical work.

He’ll go over the Strange Situation and what it measures, the roles of attachment and temperament in human development, and more.

After listening to today’s session, please comment on what you felt was most relevant or interesting. The Comment Boards are a platform for both questions and discussion, and to continue fostering a sense of community, we encourage you to include your name and hometown with your comments. We thank you for your participation in this significant webinar debate, and for your sharing your thoughts.


04.08.2011   Posted In: P004 New Perspectives on Practice: The Great Attachment Debate   By Jordan Magaziner
54
Comments
 

  • 0 avatar Kenny Meagher 04.11.2011 22:54
    Hi, I am echoing a previous comment. How do we get our CEU's??? Could some one clarify that for us please
    Thanks,
    Kenny Meagher, MFT .... California
    Reply
    • 0 avatar Psychotherapy Networker 04.12.2011 12:27
      Hi Kenny, thanks for your comment. A few days after this webinar course is complete, you'll receive an e-mail notifying you that the quiz is up on the site. The CE quiz will appear under Your Purchased Items under New Perspectives. If you have any additional questions, please feel free to e-mail support@psychotherapynetworker.org.
      Reply
  • -0.1 avatar Eric Candell 04.12.2011 13:20
    Thanks for a great discussion. As a therapist--and also as a parent of young twins with two very different four year old daughters--I have found both sessions so far quite interesting. I have to believe that Dr. Kagan is correct in saying that some kids are just naturally easier to form a bond with. They are more easily calmed and thus yield a particular style of engaging.

    At the same time, I do think it is still possible that the repetitions of the struggles with a more difficult child do have a lasting impact on how that child sees the world and maybe cause different senses of security (and would measure up differently in their attachment style). Perhaps some parents would more easily handle their labile child, whereas another might repeatedly struggle and get frustrated. When a child is observing these differences within a family (say, comparing herself to her twin sister), I could imagine that it is as signficant as class and historical context in shaping who that child is. Maybe I'm saying that, at least in our culture, we form identifications with our attachment style and that this is signficant.
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Barbara Taylor 04.12.2011 13:25
    It is not true that experiments on the relationship between temperament and attachment are not occurring. Stanley Greenspan has done wonderful experiments and has lots of valuable information on how these factors are played out in different mother/child relationships--as do some of your other presenters.
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Merrilee Gibson 04.12.2011 13:27
    Thank you once again. Much valuable information in this session. I need some time to digest before I feel able to make any meaningful comment.
    Merrilee Gibson
    San Mateo, CA
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Christine Imgrund 04.12.2011 13:27
    I cannot find the links to download the slides and lecture today. Could someone please direct me?


    I would like to see expanded slides. E.g., when the lecturer says there are 3 sub items under the first slide bullet, I would like to see those 3 things listed, especially when he is repeatedly referring to them as "A, B & C" during the lecture. Or the lecturer should say, "Write these 3 items down, because I am going to be repeatedly referring to them." My preferrence is to have expanded slides, so I have all the important notes in one file.
    Reply
    • 0 avatar Psychotherapy Networker 04.12.2011 13:55
      Hi Christine,
      If you log in to the website, go to Your Purchased Items at the top of the screen, under New Perspectives, click on "Attachment." If you scroll down on this page, you'll be able to see Session 2 and the expanded version of the slides, as well as the audio, the link back to the comment board, and a link to watch this presentation again. If you have any additional questions, please feel free to e-mail support@psychotherapynetworker.org, and they can help you.
      Reply
  • 0 avatar Harry Rieckelman 04.12.2011 13:30
    Thank you so much for this great session. It seems so long ago that I once believed that psychotherapy was something based on research, science and knowledge rather than wishful thinking and contrived values. This was extremely useful.
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Anne Desmond 04.12.2011 13:34
    Excellent discussion. The slides are very helpful. And Rick's summaries and ongoing facilitation of speaker's elaboration of his points are a huge part of the success of the experience for me.
    Reply
  • 0.1 avatar Betsy Amey 04.12.2011 13:34
    I was lucky enough to view the webinar with my daughter, Kate Degnan, who is a temperament researcher in Nathan Fox's lab at UMCP. This was great in helping me to understand her work -- and for me to see how understanding temperament and environmental/cultural effects can be even more powerful influences on the mothers, fathers, sons and daughters I treat. Thank you so much!
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Debra Tripp 04.12.2011 13:34
    A great example of the need for multi-faceted understanding of what comes to shape us as humans. I do tend to view the work from an attachment perspective, and found it interesting that the final comment supports the 'mirroring' work necessary with reactive client. Feeling understood and cared/concerned about heals. Isn't that what attachment theory is about ?
    Reply
  • -0.2 avatar Mary McKenna 04.12.2011 13:49
    Mary McKenna
    It was validating to hear your thoughts that early attachment is not fixated, but can be repaired or mitigated by later experiences. This supports my experience of clients' ability to be resilient in the face of adversity in early childhood. Also provocative were the ideas influences of class and temperament on adaptability. As the grandmother of six grandchildren, I witness up close the variances of temperament in how those children navigate life; all with secure attachments and born to educated, middle class parents. Interesting!
    Reply
  • 0 avatar robert kallus 04.12.2011 16:27
    As an MFT who's worked with numerous troubled teens and their families, and confess that I may have become too attached to attachment theory. As yet unfamiliar with Dr. Kagan's work, I anticipated resisting his challenge to attachment theory's pre-eminence (if it can claim that position) today. In short order I was in tune with him, and have come away reminded that fixation on any single approach, model or theory is risky. The comments about cultural and historical context are right on the money, and served, as Richard said, to nudge us off our parochial therapist's-eye perch to adopt an expansive view of our clients and their problems, and ourselves in the bargain. Thanks for another marvelous hour. I can't wait till next week.
    Bob Kallus
    Reply
  • Not available avatar michelle seligson 04.15.2011 10:28
    Thank you very much, Dr. Kagan for this session on the impact of temperament and social class on development and your views on the theory du jour of attachment. While I do think you agree that the caregiver-child relationship is critical from birth on, you put it in perspective. As a mother who has struggled with guilt about how I was with my kids, this was especially meaningful to me. I am now a diploma candidate at the CG Jung Institute in Boston, working with patients with whom my relationship is the most significant factor--as you said in the second part of the talk--that is what makes the difference--regardless of the origin of that difference (i.e. love or chemistry.) I also want to thank you for using two terms so familiar to me as a Jungian: anima and persona. While Jung didn't invent these ideas, he was a brilliant synthesizer and has been an inspiration to me. Interestingly, I spent more than 2 decades as a research scientist at the Wellesley College Center for Research on Women looking at the significance of day care from a number of perspectives--so you touched on all the most meaningful parts of my own life and career in this session. Thanks again!
    Reply
  • Not available avatar renee segal 04.15.2011 15:11
    Thank you for reminding us that we are culturally and historically embedded. I did not know that The strange situation was such a small study. It was very useful to think of the effects oh humans as cultural/historical, class, temperament and finally attachment, in that order. You certainly expanded my thinking. I also appreciate how temperament will rule out certain characteristics versus rule them in. I look forward to next week! I appreciate these webinars so much.
    Renee Segal
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Kristen 04.15.2011 18:25
    We tend to debate which psychological theory is RIGHT. Research can indeed be very helpful in illuminating that some theories are better than others. However, I don't believe that the research can be entirely conclusive regarding which theory is "right" and therefore should be utilized in practice. Research is simply not that clear cut, nor is human experience that simple or one-dimensional.

    In fact, from the standpoint of intersubjectivity theory, we choose our psychological theories and models based on who we are (i.e., our personality, history, etc.) more than the "rightness" of the theory. Based on what we heard the last two weeks, the research on whether attachment theory is "right" is debatable. At this point in time, I choose attachment theory more than anything else (if I'm honest) because it fits me and my experience. And, quite frankly, I think this is a good thing because I can better utilize a theory that I believe in--on an intellectual and experiential, or professional and personal, level.

    That said, Dr. Kagan was very helpful in illuminating areas where I need to be cautious in whole-heartedly applying this theory, making sure to take SES, culture/history, and temperament into account as well. Thanks, Dr. Kagan!
    Reply
    • 0 avatar jerome kagan 04.18.2011 14:46
      kristen\\

      Yes, as a clinician you should pick a theory that you believe, valid or not, in order to be effective as a therapist

      Jerry
      Reply
  • Not available avatar bruce 04.16.2011 01:46
    it seems to me that Dr Kegan is asserting that what attachment theorist are seeing is actually genetic determined construct called temperment. I have a few problems with this.
    I did not hear any proof that this has been quantified.
    We know that the quantity of receptors in the brain are not determined genetically, but develop in response to nurture.
    I have not see the studies, but Diane Benoit refers to studies that show that disorganized attachment is predictable with a 75-95% accuracy before the child is born,by interviewing the parents using he Adult Attachment Interview.
    people who look at brain scans seem to have a tendency to see a machine with parts that are more or less active. I think we need to remember that those chemical reactions are the processing of information that represent experience, beliefs and strategies for survival, not the spinning of wheels and cogs.
    Reply
    • 0 avatar jerome kagan 04.18.2011 14:44
      bruce
      No, I am saying that the strange situation as an index of attachment is affected by temperament.Science does not yet have a sensitive index of quality of attachment at one year.,

      Jerry
      Reply
  • Not available avatar Scot Liepack 04.16.2011 11:20
    I would find it interesting if you try a webinar that is a discussion as compared to a lecture. Given that Dr. Kagen was allowed to set the definitions of the debate, without challenge, his conclusions naturally followed. Attachment is a construct that is inclusive of temperament, not in opposition to it. In many ways this is back to the argument of Piaget versus Vygotsky, of the focus on the individual instead of the relationships.
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Bruce Macleod 04.16.2011 14:50
    Dr Kagen's understanding of attachment seems out of date. He sees successful people as therefore securely attached. This was the case in earlier studies of attachment; however the Dynamic Maturation Model DMM, (Patricia Crittenden) recognized that compulsive performance A4 and Compulsive Caregiving A3 are not secure attachment patterns. So neither high achievement nor compliance indicate secure attachment. People who are successful may be securely attachmed or they may be driven by anxiety as we often see.
    He also sees prevelance of an attachment style in racial groups as evidence of genetics. The DMM has identied that different cultures promote different attachment patterns as part of their cultural approach to parenting. the example he used of German parents demonstrates this, but an A attachment style does not lead to psychopatholgy or criminality.
    The ABC model of attachment is not, from my understanding very predictive of mental illness, however the ABCD model and the DMM models are able to predict mental illness.
    As models of attachment develop their ability to predict mental illness and inform treatment will continue to increase. The Temperment view will continue to label the child as bad and/or deffective.
    Reply
    • 0 avatar jerome kagan 04.18.2011 14:42
      bruce
      I do not see successful people as securely attached. Success has many meanings. We have to select one to debate the role of attachment or temperament or any other condition.
      Jerry
      Reply
      • Not available avatar bruce 04.19.2011 22:57
        thank you for clarifying that point. When you spoke of Bowlby mistakenly thinking that the crying two year olds in the hospital were missing their mothers, because slightly older children were not crying. An updated understanding of attachment recognizes that early on children react to separations with protest and crying, as they mature they develop new attachment strategies. Older children left alone in hospitals adapt by using an A type strategy or as you may see it, by transforming into a low reactive temperment. this is also common in the first month or so of foster care placements. I have worked with a number of adults separated from their families by hospitalization at a early age and know well the pain that lingers from such experiences.
        For further information on the DMM - Dynamic Maturation Model of attachment you may access these sites: www.iasa-dmm.org and www.patcrittenden.com. thank you again for your response. bruce
        Reply
  • Not available avatar gail smith 04.16.2011 21:03
    Wow, now I've thrown all previous thoughts into a bin. The more Kagan considered temperament as critical over attachment, the more I began to understand temperament as conditional to the environment. If temprament is neurobiological, then environmental stimulus can effect neurons which in turn effects temperament. Class, poverty, stress effect environment. Societal norms effect interpretation of events by both the scientist and its study group. Poor populations supported by their peers without bias from another class would do better than those "judged" to be inferior and internalized by the under class. I have also worked with many very beautiful young women who were drug addicts and turned to prostitution to support their habit. In some cases being beautiful can be a burden. Kagan's theory on this subject I have to contest. Thank you for a stimulating conversation once again.
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Jed Diamond 04.17.2011 10:11
    In listening to the recording, it stopped early and went back to the beginning. Any suggestions?
    Reply
    • 0 avatar Psychotherapy Networker 04.18.2011 10:23
      Hi Jed, we're sorry to hear that you had problems listening to the full recording. You can always go back and listen to it on-demand. For any technical questions, we suggest that you contact support@icohere.com because they'll be better able to assist you.
      Reply
  • Not available avatar Dr. Mary, Ph.D. 04.17.2011 11:47
    Great Discussion! I am an advocate of Dan Siegel's work and teach his development of the mind concepts, Jerome Kagan's work Termperatment + Experience forms who we can become. Experience comes from our social class! Attachment theory still works and we do consider basic temperament in how mom and babe interconnect. Moms are the ones who have to adapt to child's temperament and offer what each individual baby needs. This discussion helped me put it all into perspective. It is an expanding work and is not destroyed by this addition of Dr. Kagan's. Thanks, Dr. Mary, Clinical Supervior and Therapist
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Traci Withrow 04.17.2011 13:09
    I don't work with the middle class caucasian population. I work with low income minority children and families although I, myself, AM white middle class. I absolutely see every day how class and culture affect development more than attachment styles and nurturing from mom. As a student of and believer in attachment theory I have to keep my assumptions in check and remind myself how much those other factors AND temperament influence development and mother-child relationships. This mis-match of temperaments between mother and child seems to have more impact on attachment and relationshp and development than any other factor. Fascinating conversation and great to hear the "other side" of the debate!
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Harvey Kelber, LCPC 04.17.2011 14:14
    I want to thank Dr. Simon and the staff for this magnificent series,and all of the ones available to us. I subscribe to Psychotherapy Networker, and it is my favorite therapy publication. To hear these speakers, not just read them, in a way that further elucidates our deeper understanding of the issues is a gift to us as therapists.
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Susan Miller LPC LMFT 04.17.2011 21:00
    I found this discussion extremely beneficial...The following ideas stand out most: 'Temperament predicts what you will NOT be not what you WILL be'; Experience and temperment work "exactly alike", neither is deterministic however both will limit what you become..; the identifications children make at 6, 7, 8 years of age (re: qualities of parents, gender, religion, & class...) are powerful -- "the ghost in the machine"; when completing assessments clarify individual's culture/historical era, class, temperament, and first years of life; Jerome Frank's 3 criteria for successful psychotherapy... Lots to contemplate. Again, thanks!
    Susan LW Miller, Roswell, GA
    Reply
  • Not available avatar joan liberman, lcsw 04.17.2011 21:19
    thank you, thank you--I loved learning from this speaker--great, refreshing info. very grateful
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Joy Lang 04.18.2011 12:27
    Fantastic discussion. I appreciate Rich clarifying and summarizing the points made by the presenters and linking it back to how it applies to the clinician. A lot of food for thought today!
    Reply
  • Not available avatar James Jackson 04.18.2011 13:03
    I found the presentation insightful but tend to disagree with the limitations that Dr. Kegen places on his own work as well as his suggestions for therapist. I loved the paradigm shift in considering class and temprament particularly as predictive variables and as a therapist naturally look for ways to flip this and use productivly (as I do with attachment) and see limitless possiblilities to explore the clients experiance with both constructs and remeadiate where appropriate or celebrate for ego strength, or cope with inate tendancies. Thanks for the chance to consider options.
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Sharon Kocina 04.18.2011 14:12
    Fantastic! It was interesting to think about the work of Bowlby, Ainsworth and others as the start of the attachment conversation and not the be all, end all. I really appreciate the consideration of class, temperament, and historical & cultural influences on how we are.
    Rich, thank you for this opportunity.
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Michael Michnya 04.18.2011 15:36
    Thank you, Dr. Kagan, for your contribution to the debate, and to Rich Simon for a great series. While I don't think it's really possible to quantify precisely the impact of the many disparate forces that shape each of us, it’s certainly fun to try, and as Eldridge Cleaver once said, “Too much agreement kills a chat!” The interplay between our in-born genetic traits, the effects of our internal psychic experience and the external world around us, including our individual cultures, historical moments, socio-economic classes, gender, ethnicity, birth order, etc. ad infinitum, is rich and fascinating.

    Maybe somebody's already done this, but what I’d like to see is a replication of the Strange Situation with children all over the world (the US, Great Britain, Mexico, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, India, Turkey, Italy, Germany, etc.), from a variety of socio-economic-cultural backgrounds representative to that country, in urban and rural settings, and from a variety of living situations: foster families, single parent, blended, etc., and split so that half experience the strange situation in a strange room, and the other half experience it in their home. Instead of sending in observation teams, videotape the interactions, and have different observer’s code the parent-child interaction’s for the first month of life and for the strange situation so that there is no observation/researcher bias. Then come back and interview the children about their lives (perhaps with a variation of the adult attachment interview) when they are 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, etc. – just like the British documentary “7 Up.” Now that would be fun to watch.
    Reply
    • Not available avatar Chris 04.20.2011 18:11
      I agree that it would be great to watch such a study. I couldn't help but notice that in your exemplifying what you mean by "all over the world (the US, Great Britain, Mexico, Japan...)" you didn't mention any places in South America nor Africa. How easy it is to exclude parts of the world.
      Reply
      • Not available avatar Mike 04.23.2011 13:29
        Hi Chris,
        Glad you agree. As for "how easy it is to exclude parts of the world," I also didn't mention any native american tribes, pacific islanders, aboriginal peoples, caribbean islanders and I'm sure many others. The "etc." after the 10 nations I listed was meant to include the entire rest of the world and wasn't mean to exclude anyone. Since there are more than 200 or so sovereign nations and an almost infinite number of different cultures and subcultures, my list was meant to be merely illustrative not a representative sample. I sorry that I wasn't more clear, but to be honest, your reply would have been more helpful if you had simply added South America and Africa as places you'd like to see included without taking a pc-shot at me for not mentioning them.
        Reply
    • 0 avatar Bente Nilsen 04.21.2011 04:06
      DMM (Dynamic-Maturational Model by dr.Crittenden) has developed methods to extract information about. Attachmen strategies through all ages. DMM has applied It's theory and methods across cultures and socioeconomic classes, including the strange situation. Check for literature and information at pmcrittenden.com or IASA-DMM.org. Bente Nilsen, Norway
      Reply
  • Not available avatar Mina Polemi-Todoulou 04.18.2011 16:45
    Thanks for the interesting discussion. My 30y experience as therapist, trainer and ... mother seems to verify that relationship is what heals or trains - beyond any particular regime, belief or temperament. For example therapy and growth are fostered by not only therapist beeing seen (unilaterally)as wise by patient, but by patient also beeing seen as wise in the wider sense (e.g carrying with dignity a particular pain in a family or a protective role in a triangle etc). Also, agreement is important not with respect to definition of the problem - since a surprisingly differening definition sometimes works as a breakthrough... - aggreement is important when it happens "in the heart" rather than in the mind, i.e. concern, care, mutual acceptance.I would wish for more research on these lines. Knowing that the road is open and free from early life limitations raises responsibility for relations here and now...
    Thanks also for the emphasis on culture, history, social class - all so frequently underestimated...
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Charlie Love 04.18.2011 19:05
    I appreciated the focus on culture, historical context, and social economic factors. I would agree that most of us see white, middle class clients, who are overall functioning in the world. However, even though there is not major psychopathology in these individuals, there is often major suffering and relational dysfunction.
    According to Kaplan, attachment is not variable to over all function, but it is to relational satisfaction.
    Charlie Love,
    Austin, Tx







    Reply
  • Not available avatar Diane Armour 04.19.2011 10:25
    thank you! I enjoyed this session but what stood out the most was the 3 key points at the end. 1)agree on the problem 2)see the counselor as caring and wise 3) agree on the apporoach used.
    thank you and look forward to next weeks session.
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Gloria Vanderhorst 04.19.2011 12:08
    Fantastic presentation and conversation! Human change is difficult and limited in its potential; however, the connection with another human (therapist or well placed lay person) is the catalyst for change and the dynamic within which change is possible.
    Reply
  • 0 avatar John Burik 04.19.2011 12:23
    Seemed to me Dr. Kagan's remarks were (a) primarily interested in low/high reactivity from a temperament perspective and (b) limiting attachment work primarily to the first years of life. As a therapist what I find so attractive about attachment theory is that I can serve as an attachment figure and help get clients where they want to go.

    I also worked for years with Medicaid clients which, from a subjective and anecdotal perspective, counters Kagan's complaint about attachment and white middle class kids.
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Kristin A. Gresko 04.20.2011 15:15
    Thank you for deepening my knowledge of the delicate balance between attachment & temperament. I found the concept regarding what you will not be very interesting, although a bit bold without greater consideration for continued developmental experiences, especially during adolescence. All is all. very insightful food for thought.

    My thoughts resonated very much with Gail Smith saying, "The more Kagan considered temperament as critical over attachment, the more I began to understand temperament as conditional to the environment. If temprament is neurobiological, then environmental stimulus can effect neurons which in turn effects temperament."

    It seems that the delicate balance between temperament and early development provoke a lot of thought. The sessions left me thinking about the effects of fetal development and it's implications on the development of temperament. And if, in fact, this can be an aspect of the early developmental attachment process? Could prenatal experience influence the outcome of temperament and how could we ever truly know? Just food for thought...

    Thank you very much for all the helpful information and comments! I'm very much looking forward to the next session.
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Michelle Salois 04.20.2011 16:24
    I am baffled why Dr Kagan insists no attachement studies have been done controlling for class and temperament and over longer time spans when the previous presenter referred us to just those kinds of studies at Minnissota's Institute of Child Development. it made me doubt everything he said, despite my appreciation of the weight he gives to class and temperament.
    Reply
    • 0 avatar brent bradley 04.22.2011 15:36
      My sentiments exactly!

      And have the adult attachment research and literature of the past 25 years happened? The representation of attachment theory was woefully outdated. Robert Karen in "Becoming Attached" documents how the temperament camp has always been so hostile to Bowlby. I see that hasn't changed. I am sure Siegel will echo these kinds of things.

      Baffled with you.
      Reply
  • Not available avatar gabrielle guedet 04.20.2011 19:06
    I feel enriced by the content and discussion of these first three sessions - thank you for presenting such thoughtful material -
    Reply
  • 0.1 avatar Merrilee Gibson 04.21.2011 12:38
    I place great value on acquiring knowledge in my chosen field. It challenges my thinking and helps me to be a more informed therapist, which I believe helps me and my clients. That said, for a therapist it all finally comes down to the person (or family, or couple) you see before you in the therapy session. It is essential to attend to what the client presents. Main, in her work on adult attachment discusses the narratives that we have about our lives. The stories that we hear from our clients are valuable clues to their experiences and beliefs. I believe that EVERYTHING we have heard about so far in these presentations is important—attachment, temperament, neurobiology, class, ethnicity, life experiences, genetics, parenting attitudes, etc. etc. We need to be AWARE of the importance of all these aspects, and we need to be ATTENTIVE to our client’s presentation. We can use our heightened awareness to help us toward a more complete understanding of the individual seeking our help. I am very grateful for the diverse and meaningful information we have heard thus far from our very distinguished presenters. I also appreciate the many wise and informed comments of colleagues. How truly special and wonderful that we can have these discussions, exchange ideas, and continue to learn! Dr. Kagan emphasizes the importance of a therapist working from a theory we believe in. Thank you. I do that, and I still seek greater knowledge all the time.
    Merrilee Gibson, LMFT, San Mateo, CA
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Nick Child 06.06.2011 16:13
    As ever, thanks. I enjoyed Dr Kagan's wise and free-wheeling intelligent move from resoectful scientific nit-picking, to widen to the missing dimension of social class, to historical context, to pragmatics of what works in therapy. I don't really know what family therapy looks like in the USA now, but in the UK I found myself thinking that (although his style was nicely confident of his opinions and his reasons for them!) this capacity to entertain multiple perspectives and respect what works for different purposes and different clients in different eras and situations, as a postmodern one, or more specifically one of critical realism - that is, some truths fit reality better than others , or at least they gain wider support than other truths!
    Nick Child, Scotland
    Reply
  • 0 avatar Marilyn Rosen 07.13.2011 10:00
    Provocative of thought, which is the best experience. Particularly impressed with the flexibility inherent in thinking less deterministically. Early attachments are not destiny etc. Also reminded of the importance of early identifications and how they resonate internally perhaps forever inside an individual. I have 3 daughters and 7 grandchildren. Temperamenal differences exist but the children are more similar than different. What is the role of genetics in temperament?
    Reply
  • Not available avatar Amy Bibb-Ford 08.20.2011 09:13
    Was intrigued by Kagan's references to social class and its' saliency. Would like more elaboration on that topic. What is the impact of social class on temperment or attachment for that matter? Would love to see an entire networker issue devoted to that. Surely epidemiologists have looked at that if other clinicians or researchers have not. Why aren't we looking at their work to inform ours? They might provide insight re: confounding of phenomena, e.g. temperment, relationship, attachment, race, class, etc....
    Reply
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